Links and Research Information

Codes and Spying Links

All links on this page were evaluated in December 2017 but sites close or change their web addresses from time to time so if you spot any errors please let me know. My contact details are at the foot of this page.

Web Link Description of Content
Computer History Museum Link to the museum's collections page from where you can access information about the history of early computers including those used for codebreaking.
The Turing Digital Archive This website run by King's College Cambridge contains nearly 3,000 images of letters, photographs, newspaper articles, and unpublished papers by or about Alan Turing. The images were scanned from the collection of Turing papers held in the Archive Centre at King's College, Cambridge.
Alan Turing: The Enigma Website with many links to material related to Alan Turing by his biographer Andrew Hodges.
Breaking Germany's Enigma Code BBC History article by Andrew Lycett from 2011 providing an overview and further reading lists etc.
Codebreaking and Secret Weapons in World War II Article by Bill Momsen describing German cipher capability and weaknesses in usage that let to deciphering.
German Code Breaking of WWII Article by Arvo L Vercamer describing coding techniques and successes and failures in code breaking by various countries since before WW1.
Bletchley Park Home page of the Bletchley Park National Codes Centre.
Navajo Code Talkers The fascinating story of how Navajo people were used in radio communications during WW2 to confuse eavesdroppers due to the complexit of their language.
US Army Signal Corps Officer Candidate School Association Review by Dr Louis Kruhr of a publication about the SIGSALY system for secret telephony used in WW2 - the first pulse code modulation (PCM) system which has paved the way for modern telephony.
Introduction To Codes, Ciphers, & Codebreaking Greg Goebel has put together a comprehensive history of codes and ciphers with details of codes and codebreaking from WW1, WW2 and through to the present. Warning - it is difficult to stop once you start reading this material!
History of GCHQ The organisation's own history page.
Cipher Machines and Cryptology Dirk Rijmenants has created a large website with information about many aspects of the subject with interesting diagrams and photos. One of the links on this site includes a downloadable simulation of the Enigma machine you can play with.
Crypto Museum An online museum from the Netherlands with information and photos of 25 historical cipher machines and other information. There are also various other instruments including radios and telex machines.
EnigmaMuseum.com You can buy a genuine cipher machine here.
The History of MI5 Official history page of MI5.
The History of MI6 Offical history page of MI6.
Langeleben and the Intercept Business Reminiscences from people who worked intercepting radio traffic including an introduction to the "Y" service and its history. These units gathered the raw intercept data that was processed by cryptanalysts.